Microbial community analysis of soils under different soybean cropping regimes in the Argentinean south-eastern Humid Pampas
Soil microbial communities are key players of ecosystem processes and important for crop and soil health. The Humid Pampas region in Argentina concentrates 75% of the national soybean production, which is based on intensive use of agrochemicals, monocropping and no-till. A long-term field experiment under no-till management in the southeast of the Argentinean Pampas provides a unique opportunity to compare soybean under monocropping with cultivation including alternating cover crops or in a three-phase rotation. We hypothesized that cropping regimes and season affect soil microbial community composition and diversity. Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacer fragments showed a stronger microbial seasonal dynamic in conservation regimes compared to monocropping. In addition, several bacterial (e.g. Catenulispora, Streptomyces and Bacillus) and fungal genera (e.g. Exophiala) with cropping regime-dependent differential relative abundances were identified. Despite a temporal shift in microbial and chemical parameters, this study shows that long-term cropping regimes shaped the soil microbiota. This might have important implications for soil quality and soybean performance and should therefore be considered in the development of sustainable agricultural managements.
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