Transcriptome of Cydia pomonella granulovirus in susceptible and type I resistant codling moth larvae
The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is a biocontrol agent used worldwide against the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., a severe pest in organic and integrated pome fruit production. Its successful application is increasingly challenged by the occurrence of CM populations resistant to commercial CpGV products. Whereas three types (I-III) of CpGV resistance have been identified, type I resistance compromising the efficacy of CpGV-M, the so-called Mexican isolate of CpGV, is assumed to be the most widely distributed resistance type in Central Europe. Despite the wide use of CpGV products as biocontrol agents, little information is available on gene-expression levels in CM larvae. In this study, the in vivo transcriptome of CpGV-M infecting susceptible (CpS) and resistant (CpRR1) CM larvae was analysed at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post infection in the midgut and fat body tissue by using a newly developed microarray covering all ORFs of the CpGV genome. According to their transcript abundance, the CpGV genes were grouped into four temporal clusters to which groups of known and unknown function could be assigned. In addition, sets of genes differentially expressed in the midgut and fat body were found in infected susceptible CpS larvae. For the resistant CpRR1 larvae treated with CpGV-M, viral entry in midgut cells could be confirmed from onset but a significantly reduced gene expression, indicating that type I resistance is associated with a block of viral gene transcription and replication.