Ticks on the run: A mathematical model of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) - key factors for transmission : [Preprint]

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Ticks belonging to the genus \textit{Hyalomma} are the main vectors and reservoir for the virus. It is maintained in nature in an endemic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. CCHFV is prevalent in wide geographical areas including Asia, Africa, South-Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Over the last decade, several outbreaks of CCHFV have been observed in Europe, mainly in Mediterranean countries. Due to the high case/fatality ratio of CCHFV in human sometimes, it is of great importance for public health. Climate change and the invasion of CCHFV vectors in Central Europe suggest that the establishment of the transmission in Central Europe may be possible in future. We developed a compartment-based nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) system to model the disease transmission cycle including blood sucking ticks, livestock and human. Sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number R0 shows that decreasing in the tick survival time is an efficient method to eradicate the disease. The model supports us in understanding the influence of different model parameters on the spread of CCHFV. Tick to tick transmission through co-feeding and the CCHFV circulation through trasstadial and transovarial stages are important factors to sustain the disease cycle. The proposed model dynamics are calibrated through an empirical multi-country analysis and multidimensional scaling reveals the disease-parameter sets of different countries burdened with CCHF are different. This necessary information may help us to select most efficient control strategies.




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