Insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution, potential antivirals, and vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, spread among humans, and to date, more than 100 million of laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported worldwide. The virus demonstrates 96% similarity to a coronavirus from a horseshoe bat and most probably emerged from a spill over from bats or wild animal(s) to humans. Currently, two variants are circulating in the UK and South Africa and spread to many countries around the world. The impact of mutations on virus replication, virulence and transmissibility should be monitored carefully. Current data suggest recurrent infection with SARS-CoV-2 correlated to the level of neutralising antibodies and with sustained memory responses following infection. Recently, remdesivir was FDA approved for treatment of COVID-19, however many potential antivirals are currently in different clinical trials. Clinical data and experimental studies indicated that licenced vaccines are helpful in controlling the disease. However, the current vaccines should be evaluated against the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2.



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