Potential utilization of commercial waste in Jakarta as alternative fuel by cement industry
As the capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta had a population of 10.2 million in 2015 that generated 6200 metric tonnes (Mt) day−¹ of municipal waste in the 2017–2019 period. In the composition of the waste, as much as 9% is contributed by the commercial sector. This research focuses on five shopping areas in Jakarta (commercial areas (CAs)). The five CAs produce 110 Mt of waste per day and 79% of them are disposed of in landfills. 95% of the waste is a combustible fraction which can be used as an alternative fuel by the cement industry because the fraction has a low heating value of around 24 MJ kg−¹. It is estimated that in one year, the CAs can produce about 34,500 Mt of alternative fuel with 820 TJ of energy. Approximately, the resulting energy savings are 2.6% which is equal to approximately 35,500 Mt of coal. In addition, the utilization of alternative fuel can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.7% or 50,000 Mt.