Recombinant Baculovirus-Produced Grass Carp Reovirus Virus-Like Particles as Vaccine Candidate That Provides Protective Immunity against GCRV Genotype II Infection in Grass Carp
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) leads to severe hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and causes economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. Recent epidemiological investigations showed that GCRV genotype II is the dominant subtype in China. Therefore, it is very important to develop a novel vaccine for preventing diseases caused by GCRV genotype II. In this study, we employed a bac-to-bac expression system to generate GCRV-II-based virus-like particles (VLPs). Previous studies have shown that the structural proteins VP3, VP4, and VP38 encoded by the segments S3, S6, and S10 of type II GCRV are immunogenic. Hence, the GCRV-VLPs were produced by co-infection of sf9 cells with recombinant baculoviruses PFBH-VP3, PFBH-VP4, and PFBH-VP38. The expressions of VP3, VP4, and VP38 proteins in GCRV-VLPs were tested by IFA and Western blot analysis. By electron microscopic observations of ultrathin sections, purified VLPs showed that the expressed proteins are similar in shape to GCRV genotype II with a size range from 40 nm to 60 nm. The immunogenicity of GCRV-VLPs was evaluated by the injection immunization of grass carp. The analysis of serum-specific IgM antibody showed that grass carp immunized with GCRV-VLPs produced GCRV-specific antibodies. Furthermore, injection with GCRV-VLPs increased the expressions of immune-related genes (IgM, IFN, TLR3, TLR7) in the spleen and kidney. In addition, grass carp immunized with a GCRV-VLPs-based vaccine showed a relative percent survival rate (RPS) of 83.33% after challenge. The data in this study showed that GCRV-VLPs demonstrated an excellent immunogenicity and represent a promising approach for vaccine development against GCRV genotype II infection.