Putative Novel Serotypes ‘33′ and ‘35′ in Clinically Healthy Small Ruminants in Mongolia Expand the Group of Atypical BTV
Between 2015 and 2018, we identified the presence of three so-far-unknown Bluetongue virus (BTV) strains (BTV-MNG1/2018, BTV-MNG2/2016, and BTV-MNG3/2016) circulating in clinical healthy sheep and goats in Mongolia. Virus isolation from EDTA blood samples of BTV-MNG1/2018 and BTV-MNG3/2016 was successful on the mammalian cell line BSR using blood collected from surveillance. After experimental inoculation of goats with BTV-MNG2/2016 positive blood as inoculum, we observed viraemia in one goat and with the EDTA blood of the experimental inoculation, the propagation of BTV-MNG2/2016 in cell culture was successful on mammalian cell line BSR as well. However, virus isolation experiments for BTV-MNG2/2016 on KC cells were unsuccessful. Furthermore, we generated the complete coding sequence of all three novel Mongolian strains. For atypical BTV, serotyping via the traditional serum neutralization assay is not trivial. We therefore sorted the ‘putative novel atypical serotypes’ according to their segment-2 sequence identities and their time point of sampling. Hence, the BTV-MNG1/2018 isolate forms the ‘putative novel atypical serotype’ 33, the BTV-MNG3/2016 the ‘putative novel atypical serotype’ 35, whereas the BTV-MNG2/2016 strain belongs to the same putative novel atypical serotype ‘30′ as BTV-XJ1407 from China.