Development of a Safe and Highly Efficient Inactivated Vaccine Candidate against Lumpy Skin Disease Virus
Capripox virus (CaPV)-induced diseases (lumpy skin disease, sheeppox, goatpox) are described as the most serious pox diseases of livestock animals, and therefore are listed as notifiable diseases under guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Until now, only live-attenuated vaccines are commercially available for the control of CaPV. Due to numerous potential problems after vaccination (e.g., loss of the disease-free status of the respective country, the possibility of vaccine virus shedding and transmission as well as the risk of recombination with field strains during natural outbreaks), the use of these vaccines must be considered carefully and is not recommended in CaPV-free countries. Therefore, innocuous and efficacious inactivated vaccines against CaPV would provide a great tool for control of these diseases. Unfortunately, most inactivated Capripox vaccines were reported as insufficient and protection seemed to be only short-lived. Nevertheless, a few studies dealing with inactivated vaccines against CaPV are published, giving evidence for good clinical protection against CaPV-infections. In our studies, a low molecular weight copolymer-adjuvanted vaccine formulation was able to induce sterile immunity in the respective animals after severe challenge infection. Our findings strongly support the possibility of useful inactivated vaccines against CaPV-infections, and indicate a marked impact of the chosen adjuvant for the level of protection.