Veterinary Diagnostic Approach of Common Virus Diseases in Adult Honeybees
Veterinarians are educated in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases in various vertebrate species. As they are familiar with multifactorial health problems in single animals as well as in herd health management, their knowledge and skills can be beneficial for the beekeepers and honeybee health. However, in education and in practice, honeybees are not a common species for most veterinarians and the typical veterinary diagnostic methods such as blood sampling or auscultation are not applicable to the superorganism honeybee. Honeybee colonies may be affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. Among the infectious agents, RNA-viruses build the largest group, causing covert and overt infections in honeybee colonies which may lead to colony losses. Veterinarians could and should play a more substantial role in managing honeybee health-not limited to cases of notifiable diseases and official hygiene controls. This review discusses the veterinary diagnostic approach to adult bee examination with a special focus on diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the common virus diseases Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV)-Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV)-Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV)-Complex, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), as well as coinfections like Varroa spp. and Nosema spp.