The effect of bio/organic fertilizers on the phytotoxicity of sulfadiazine to Echium amoenum in a calcareous soil
The fate of antibiotics and their effects on plant growth may be changed by the application of fertilizers. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sulfadiazine (SDZ), rice husk compost (RHC), rice husk biochar (RHB), and mycorrhiza (MR) on the growth attributes of Iranian Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. A greenhouse experiment as a completely randomized design with six treatments of bio/organic-fertilizers (no bio-fertilizer (NF), RHB, RHC, MR, RHB + MR, and RHC + MR) and three levels of SDZ application (0, 100, and 200 mg kg−1) was performed for 7 months with three replicates. Shoot and root SDZ concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD) instrumentation. The results revealed that the application of RHC, RHB, and MR had a significant impact on the reduction of the toxicity effects of SDZ on plant properties. The lowest values of growth parameters belonged to the 200 mg kg−1 of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers, while the highest growth parameters were observed in the treatments of RHB + MR, and RHC + MR with no SDZ application. Also, chlorophyll pigments content was affected by used treatments and the lowest rates of chlorophyll a (4.24), chlorophyll b (2.99), and carotenoids (2.88) were related to the 200 mg kg−1 of SDZ with no biofertilizers application. The co-application of bio-fertilizers and SDZ (at both levels of 100 and 200 mg kg−1) decreased SDZ uptake by both shoot and root in comparison with the control. The same results were obtained with macro (NPK) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) nutrients uptake by the shoot in which the lowest values of nutrients uptake were observed in treatment of 200 mg kg−1 of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers. Furthermore, in the case of the effect of the used treatments on root colonization, the results showed that the lowest value (7.26%) belonged to the 200 mg kg−1 application of SDZ with no bio-fertilizers. Generally, this study demonstrated that bio-fertilizers could be considered as an effective strategy in controlling the negative effects of antibiotics on the growth properties and nutrients status of the plants grown in such contaminated soils.
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