Mitochondrial genome of Fagus sylvatica L. as a source for taxonomic marker development in the Fagales
European beech, Fagus sylvatica L., is one of the most important and widespread deciduous tree species in Central Europe and is widely managed for its hard wood. The complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Fagus sylvatica L. was assembled and annotated based on Illumina MiSeq reads and validated using long reads from nanopore MinION sequencing. The genome assembled into a single DNA sequence of 504,715 bp in length containing 58 genes with predicted function, including 35 protein-coding, 20 tRNA and three rRNA genes. Additionally, 23 putative protein-coding genes were predicted supported by RNA-Seq data. Aiming at the development of taxon-specific mitochondrial genetic markers, the tool SNPtax was developed and applied to select genic SNPs potentially specific for different taxa within the Fagales. Further validation of a small SNP set resulted in the development of four CAPS markers specific for Fagus, Fagaceae, or Fagales, respectively, when considering over 100 individuals from a total of 69 species of deciduous trees and conifers from up to 15 families included in the marker validation. The CAPS marker set is suitable to identify the genus Fagus in DNA samples from tree tissues or wood products, including wood composite products.