Comparative Pathology of Pseudorabies in Different Naturally and Experimentally Infected Species : A Review
The pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Aujeszky’s disease (AD). PRV infects a wide range of animal species including swine as the natural host as well as ruminants, carnivores, rodents and lagomorphs. In these species, except for the pig, PRV infection causes acute, severe disease, characterized by insatiable itching, and is always lethal. Horses, chickens and non-human primates have been shown to be largely resistant to PRV infection, while disease in humans is still controversial. PRV is a pantropic virus, which preferably invades neural tissue, but also infects epithelia of various organs, whereupon multisystemic lesions may result. Although AD is mainly associated with severe pruritus, also known as “mad itch”, there are notable differences regarding infection route, clinical signs, viral distribution and lesion patterns in different animal species. In this comprehensive review, we will present clinico-pathologic findings from different species, which have been either shown to be susceptible to PRV infection or have been tested experimentally.