Surveillance of European Domestic Pig Populations Identifies an Emerging Reservoir of Potentially Zoonotic Swine Influenza A Viruses

Henritzi, Dinah GND; Petric, Philipp Peter; Lewis, Nicola Sarah; Graaf, Annika GND; Pessia, Alberto; Starick, Elke GND; Breithaupt, Angele GND; Strebelow, Günter GND; Luttermann, Christine GND; Parker, Larissa Mareike Kristin; Schröder, Charlotte GND; Hammerschmidt, Bärbel GND; Herrler, Georg; große Beilage, Elisabeth; Stadlbauer, Daniel; Simon, Viviana; Krammer, Florian; Wacheck, Silke; Pesch, Stefan; Schwemmle, Martin; Beer, Martin GND; Harder, Timm C. GND

Swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) can play a crucial role in the generation of new human pandemic viruses. In this study, in-depth passive surveillance comprising nearly 2,500 European swine holdings and more than 18,000 individual samples identified a year-round presence of up to four major swIAV lineages on more than 50% of farms surveilled. Phylogenetic analyses show that intensive reassortment with human pandemic A(H1N1)/2009 (H1pdm) virus produced an expanding and novel repertoire of at least 31 distinct swIAV genotypes and 12 distinct hemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations with largely unknown consequences for virulence and host tropism. Several viral isolates were resistant to the human antiviral MxA protein, a prerequisite for zoonotic transmission and stable introduction into human populations. A pronounced antigenic variation was noted in swIAV, and several H1pdm lineages antigenically distinct from current seasonal human H1pdm co-circulate in swine. Thus, European swine populations represent reservoirs for emerging IAV strains with zoonotic and, possibly, pre-pandemic potential.

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Henritzi, Dinah / Petric, Philipp / Lewis, Nicola / et al: Surveillance of European Domestic Pig Populations Identifies an Emerging Reservoir of Potentially Zoonotic Swine Influenza A Viruses. 2020.

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