Extrusion texturization of cricket flour and soy protein isolate: Influence of insect content, extrusion temperature, and moisture-level variation on textural properties
Due to the increasing global population and unsustainable meat production, the future supply of animal-derived protein is predicted to be insufficient. Currently, edible insects are considered as a potential and “novel” source of protein in the development of palatable meat analogues. This research used high moisture extrusion cooking (HMEC), at a screw speed of 150 rpm, to produce meat analogues using full- or low-fat cricket flours (CF) and soy protein isolate (SPI). Effects of water flow rate (WFR), cooking temperature (9 and 10 ml/min; 120, 140, and 160°C, respectively), and CF inclusions levels of 0, 15, 30, and 45% were analyzed. Cooking temperature and CF inclusion had a significant effect (p <.05) on both tensile stress in parallel and perpendicular directions, while WFR had no significant effect (p =.3357 and 0.7700), respectively. The tensile stress increased with temperature but decreased with CF inclusion at both WFRs. Comparatively, the tensile stress was stronger at WFR of 9 ml/min than at 10 ml/min; however, the tensile stress in parallel was mostly greater than tensile stress in perpendicular directions. Fibrous meat analogues with high anisotropic indices (AIs) of up to 2.80 were obtained, particularly at WFR of 10 ml/min and at inclusions of 30% low-fat CF. By controlling HMEC conditions, full-/low-fat cricket flours at 15% and 30% inclusions can offer an opportunity to partially substitute SPI in manufacturing of fibrous meat analogues.