In vitro androgenesis in apple - Improvement of the induction phase
Based on a protocol for microspore culture in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), the embryo induction phase has been improved with regard to pretreatment of microspores for initiation of microspore embryogenesis, the concentration of carbon source in the induction medium and the microspore density in the suspension. Furthermore, the effect of the genotype was studied. To determine the efficiency of in vitro androgenesis, both methods, via anther and microspore culture, were investigated using the same bud material. A comparison of the efficiency of embryo induction in anther and microspore cultures showed that microspore culture resulted in an increase up to 10 times, depending on the genotype. The regeneration route in microspore culture is similar to that of androgenic embryos via anther culture and showed adventitious shoot formation in most cases after a long period of secondary embryogenesis.