Canine papillomavirus type 16 associated to squamous cell carcinoma in a dog: virological and pathological findings
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are circular double-stranded DNA virus belonging to Papillomaviridae family. During the infection cycle, PVs translate proteins that can influence cell growth and differentiation, leading to epidermal hyperplasia and papillomas (warts) or malignant neoplasms. Canis familiaris papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been associated with different lesions, such as oral and cutaneous papillomatosis, pigmented plaques, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here, we report a clinical case of a mixed bred female dog with pigmented plaques induced by CPV16 (Chipapillomavirus 2) that progressed to in situ and invasive SCCs. Gross and histological findings were characterized, and the lesions were mainly observed in ventral abdominal region and medial face of the limbs. In situ hybridization (ISH) revealed strong nuclear hybridization signals in the neoplastic epithelial cells, as well as in the keratinocytes and koilocytes of the pigmented viral plaques. The full genome of the CPV16 recovered directly from the lesions was characterized, and the phylogenetic relationships were determined. The identification of oncoprotein genes (E5, E6, and E7) by high throughput sequencing (HTS) and their expected domains are suggestive of the malignant transformation by CPV16.
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