First reports of indigenous lethal infection with Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma bovis and Theileria orientalis in Croatian cattle
Anaplasmosis and theileriosis are important diseases with great economic impact that affect the cattle industry worldwide. In this study, we describe the first molecularly confirmed clinical cases of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale and of a concurrent infection with A. bovis and Theileria orientalis in Croatian cattle. Clinical signs of A. marginale-infected cows included fever, lethargy, dark urine, as well as icteric and reddish mucous membranes. Postmortem examination revealed icterus, urinary bladder filled with dark urine and splenomegaly. A marginale was observed within erythrocytes on Giemsa-stained spleen imprints. Three affected cows were successfully treated with oxytetracycline, after which no new deaths occurred in the herd. Three cows in a different herd died suddenly and were found to be concurrently infected with A. bovis and T. orientalis. Postmortem examination revealed generalized icterus and urinary bladder filled with dark urine. These cases of A. marginale, A. bovis and T. orientalis infection show that bovine anaplasmosis and theileriosis are present within Croatian cattle and should be included in differential diagnostic protocols.
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