Aphid transmission of nanoviruses
The genus Nanovirus consists of plant viruses that predominantly infect legumes leading to devastating crop losses. Nanoviruses are transmitted by various aphid species. The transmission occurs in a circulative nonpropagative manner. It was long suspected that a virus‐encoded helper factor would be needed for successful transmission by aphids. Recently, a helper factor was identified as the nanovirus‐encoded nuclear shuttle protein (NSP). The mode of action of NSP is currently unknown in contrast to helper factors from other plant viruses that, for example, facilitate binding of virus particles to receptors within the aphids' stylets. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge about nanovirus–aphid vector interactions.