Function of Torsin AAA+ ATPases in Pseudorabies Virus Nuclear Egress
Newly assembled herpesvirus nucleocapsids traverse the intact nuclear envelope by a vesicle-mediated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport for final virion maturation in the cytoplasm. For this, they bud at the inner nuclear membrane resulting in primary enveloped particles in the perinuclear space (PNS) followed by fusion of the primary envelope with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). While the conserved viral nuclear egress complex orchestrates the first steps, effectors of fusion of the primary virion envelope with the ONM are still mostly enigmatic but might include cellular proteins like SUN2 or ESCRT-III components. Here, we analyzed the influence of the only known AAA+ ATPases located in the endoplasmic reticulum and the PNS, the Torsins (Tor), on nuclear egress of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus. For this overexpression of wild type and mutant proteins as well as CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was applied. Neither single overexpression nor gene knockout (KO) of TorA or TorB had a significant impact. However, TorA/B double KO cells showed decreased viral titers at early time points of infection and an accumulation of primary virions in the PNS pointing to a delay in capsid release during nuclear egress.