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Effects of photoperiod and relative humidity on diapause termination and post-winter development of Rhagoletis cerasi pupae

Affiliation
Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou ST., Volos, 384 46Magnesia, Greece.
Moraiti, Cleopatra A.;
Affiliation
Centre for Agricultural Technology Augustenberg (LTZ), Neßlerstr. 25, 76227Karlsruhe, Germany.
Köppler, Kirsten;
GND
1059102838
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture
Vogt, Heidrun;
ORCID
0000-0003-2480-8189
Affiliation
Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou ST., Volos, 384 46Magnesia, Greece.
Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a univoltine species that undergoes obligatory summer-winter diapause at pupal stage in the soil (2-5 cm) beneath host trees. To study the effects of photoperiod and relative humidity on diapause termination and post-winter developmental duration of R. cerasi, pupae collected from Dossenheim (Germany) were exposed to different photoperiod or relative humidity regimes during a chilling period ranging from 2 to 8.5 months. Specifically, pupae were exposed to four photoperiod regimes: (a) light conditions (24L:00D), (b) dark conditions (00L:24D), (c) short photoperiod (08L:16D) and (d) long photoperiod (16L:08D), as well as to three relative humidity regimes: (a) low (40% RH), (b) medium (60% RH) and (c) high (70-80% RH). Data revealed that relative humidity is not a significant predictor of diapause termination, but it affects the post-winter developmental period. Higher relative humidity promotes post-winter pupae development. On the other hand, photoperiod significantly affected both diapause termination and post-winter development of R. cerasi pupae. Light conditions (24L:00D) accelerate adult emergence, particularly for females. Regardless of the photoperiod (24L:00D, 00L:24D, 08L:16D), rates of adult emergence were high (>75%) for chilling intervals longer than 6.5 months. Nonetheless, exposure to a long day photoperiod (16L:08D), during chilling, dramatically reduced the proportion of adult emergence following 6 months exposure to chilling. Our findings broaden the understanding of factors regulating diapause responses in European cherry fruit fly, local adaptation and synchronization of adult emergence with the ripening period of major hosts.

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