Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration has limited effect on wheat grain quality regardless of nitrogen supply
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can decrease the grain quality of wheat. However, little information exists concerning interactions between e[CO2] and nitrogen fertilization on important grain quality traits. To investigate this, a two-year free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted with two CO2 (393 and 600 ppm) and three (deficiency, adequate, and excess) nitrogen levels. Concentrations of flour proteins (albumins/globulins, gliadins, and glutenins) and key minerals (iron, zinc, and sulfur), and baking quality (loaf volume) were markedly increased by increasing nitrogen levels and varied between years. e[CO2] resulted in slightly decreased albumin/globulin and total gluten concentration under all nitrogen conditions, whereas loaf volume and mineral concentrations remained unaffected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed strong effects of nitrogen supply and year on the grain proteome. Under adequate nitrogen, the grain proteome was affected by e[CO2] with 19 down-regulated and 17 up-regulated protein spots. The down-regulated proteins comprised globulins, but no gluten proteins. e[CO2] resulted in decreased crude protein concentration at maximum loaf volume. The present study contrasts with other FACE studies showing markedly stronger negative impacts of e[CO2] on chemical grain quality and reasons for that might be differences between genotypes, soil conditions or the extent of growth stimulation by e[CO2].
Use and reproduction:
All rights reserved