Serological and Molecular Detection of Bovine Brucellosis at Institutional Livestock Farms in Punjab, Pakistan
Bovine brucellosis remains a persistent infection in ruminants in Pakistan. A total of 828 (409 buffaloes and 419 cattle) sera were collected from 11 institutional-owned livestock farms in Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were tested by rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The seroprevalence along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was determined. Univariable and multivariable analysis of the epidemiological background data was conducted and odds ratio (OR) was calculated to understand any association between the risk factors and the seroprevalence. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (Positive/Tested = 32/828) and 3.3% (27/828) was detected by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of 5.6% (CI 3.6–8.3) and 4.7%, (CI 2.8–7.2) and the odds ratio of 2.63 (CI 1.20–5.77) and 2.50 (CI 1.08–5.78) for testing positive by RBPT and iELISA, respectively were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in buffaloes than in cattle. Breed, sex, history of abortion and retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in the animals were not found statistically significantly associated with the infection. RBPT and iELISA based results agreed almost perfect (k = 0.877). In total, Brucella abortus-DNA (9/27) was amplified from seropositive samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study identified for the first time the etiological agents of brucellosis at a molecular level at institutional-owned livestock farms in Pakistan.