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Genetic assessment of the pomological classification of plum Prunus domestica L. accessions sampled across Europe

Affiliation
Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Gasi, F.;
Affiliation
Balsgard–Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Fjälkestadsvägen 459, 291914 Kristianstad, Sweden
Sehic, J.;
Affiliation
Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Grahic, J.;
Affiliation
Njøs næringsutvikling, Njøsavegen 5, 6863 Leikanger, Norway
Hjeltnes, S. H.;
Affiliation
School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AR, UK
Ordidge, M.;
Affiliation
National Agriculture and Food Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production, Bratislavska cesta 122, 921 68 Piest'any, Slovakia
Benedikova, D.;
Affiliation
INRA-Unite Experimentale Arboricole, Domaine de la Tour de Rance, 47320 Bourran, France
Blouin-Delmas, M.;
Affiliation
Department of Deciduous Fruit Trees, Institute of Plant Breeding and Plant Genetic Resources, HAO-‘Demeter’, 59200 Naoussa, Greece
Drogoudi, P.;
Affiliation
CREA-Research Centre for Olive, Citrus and Fruit Tree, via la Canapona 1 bis, 47121 Forli, Italy
Giovannini, D.;
GND
1059103419
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Breeding Research on Fruit Crops, Germany
Höfer, Monika;
Affiliation
Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Kahu, K.;
Affiliation
National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Fruitculture Research Institute, Park str, 2, Budapest 1223, Hungary
Kovacs, S.;
Affiliation
Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu 1, Dobele LV3701, Latvia
Lacis, G.;
Affiliation
Department of Life Sciences, Breeding and Biodiversity Unit, CRA-W, Rue de Liroux 4, Batiment Emile Marchal, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
Lateur, M.;
Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Copenhagen University, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark
Toldam-Andersen, T. B.;
Affiliation
Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Fruit Growing and Viticulture, Sq. Dositeja Obradovica 8, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
Ognjanov, V.;
Affiliation
Balsgard–Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Fjälkestadsvägen 459, 291914 Kristianstad, Sweden
Nybom, H.

The genotyping of European fruit tree collections has helped to identify synonyms, determine parentage, reveal key specimens in the collections and provide information on the development of modern cultivars from one or several progenitors. However, studies on European plum Prunus domestica L. accessions have been lagging behind, mainly because of the hexaploid chromosome number. In this co-operative study, 104 accessions conserved by 14 partners across Europe were phenotyped for 20 descriptors, and genotyped for 8 SSR loci together with 8 reference cultivars. Based on the descriptors and additional information supplied by the partners, as well as the scientific and horticultural literature, each accession was assigned to one of six pomological groups; (1) egg plums sensu lato (E), (2) prunes of the French d’Agen type (P/A), (3) prunes of the Central- Southeast European Zwetschen type (P/Z), (4) greengages (G), (5) mirabelles (M) and (6) bullaces, damsons and var. pomariorum (D/B). A MANOVA conducted on descriptor data revealed significant differentiation among the pomological groups as well as a geographic impact on the differentiation of local plum accessions in Europe. SSR data showed that two trios and seven pairs of genotypes had very similar allele profiles and possibly are genetically identical in spite of different accession names. An AMOVA indicated sparse genetic differentiation when accessions were grouped according to geographic origin whereas significant differences were obtained among pomological groups. A Bayesian analysis of genetic structure, as well as a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), further revealed levels of similarity among and within the different pomological groups, suggesting that egg plums sensu lato (E) and greengages (G) can be referred to subsp. domestica while damsons and bullaces (D/B) but also Central-Southeast European prunes (P/Z) show more affinity to subsp. insititia. The small and possibly heterogeneous groups with mirabelles (M) and prunes of the d’Agen type (P/A) take an intermediate position suggesting a hybridogenic origin.

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