Potential utilization of RDF as an alternative fuel to be used in cement industry in Jordan
This experimental research aimed to examine potential production and utilization of RDF derived from mixed municipal solid waste using bio-drying technology to be used as a substitute fuel for the traditional fuel currently used in cement plants in Jordan. The characteristics of RDF produced were identified and compared with limits and criteria set by some European countries. An economic model for RDF utilization in cement industry was created. The model proposes six different options resulting from adding RDF as a substitute fuel for the petcoke fuel currently used. A cost analysis for each option proposed was performed to estimate the economic and environmental savings of RDF utilization in cement industry. At the end of the bio-drying process, the mass of dried waste directed to the landfill was reduced by about 35%. In the case of the recovery of RDF materials from dried waste, the mass of waste to be landfilled was reduced by 69%. The bio-drying process allowed an increase in the heating value of waste (LHV) by 58% to reach 15.58 MJ/kg, as a result of the reduction of waste moisture. RDF produced had high calorific value, low water content, and satisfactory chlorine content. With regard to the concentration of the heavy metals, all of the RDF samples tested had lower concentrations than those values set by some European countries. The findings showed that adding 15% RDF as a substitute fuel, equaling 4.92 tons/h, to the fuel used in cement kilns will save 486 USD/h in petcoke costs, with 2.27 tons/h of CO₂ being emitted into the atmosphere at a net saving of 389 USD/h.