Tracking Short-Range Attraction and Oviposition of European Grapevine Moths Affected by Volatile Organic Compounds in a Four-Chamber Olfactometer
The identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leading to short-range attraction and oviposition of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana and European grape berry moth Eupoecilia ambiguella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is crucial in order to establish bait-based decision support systems for control of these pests. Therefore, we developed a method to measure the real-time behavioral response of female moths to VOCs using a four-chamber olfactometer coupled with a video tracking system. Ten synthetic VOCs were selected for this study: (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, (E)/(Z)-linalool oxide, (±)-limonene, linalool, (E)-β-caryophyllene, α/β-farnesene, (-)-α-cedrene, methyl salicylate and cumene. The effect of VOCs on egg deposition was determined using a dual-choice oviposition test, whereas perception by female antennae was verified using electroantennography (EAG). During video tracking, females responded to volatile compounds emitted by grapevine with higher antennae and ovipositor activity than to air control. (E)/(Z)-linalool oxide, cumene and (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde released ovipositor activity of L. botrana, while the latter provoked oviposition. (R)/(S)-limonene affected ovipositor activity of E. ambiguella, whereas none of the VOCs tested attracted for oviposition. The results suggest that females have the ability to perceive specific VOCs by the antennae but also by the ovipositor, which could attract or repel for egg deposition.