DHA-induced perturbation of human serum metabolome. Role of the food matrix and Co-administration of oat β-glucan and anthocyanins
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been reported to have a positive impact on many diet-related disease risks, including metabolic syndrome. Although many DHA-enriched foods have been marketed, the impact of different food matrices on the effect of DHA is unknown. As well, the possibility to enhance DHA effectiveness through the co-administration of other bioactives has seldom been considered. We evaluated DHA effects on the serum metabolome administered to volunteers at risk of metabolic syndrome as an ingredient of three different foods. Foods were enriched with DHA alone or in combination with oat beta-glucan or anthocyanins and were administered to volunteers for 4 weeks. Serum samples collected at the beginning and end of the trial were analysed by NMR-based metabolomics. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to characterize modifications in the serum metabolome and to evaluate bioactive-bioactive and bioactive-food matrix interactions. DHA administration induces metabolome perturbation that is influenced by the food matrix and the co-presence of other bioactives. In particular, when co-administered with oat beta-glucan, DHA induces a strong rearrangement in the lipoprotein profile of the subjects. The observed modifications are consistent with clinical results and indicate that metabolomics represents a possible strategy to choose the most appropriate food matrices for bioactive enrichment.