Global comparison of bicosoecid Cafeteria-like flagellates from the deep ocean and surface waters, with reorganization of the family Cafeteriaceae
Cafeteria is one of the most common and ecologically significant genera of heterotrophic nanoflagellates in marine plankton. We could isolate and cultivate 29 strains morphologically similar to Cafeteria obtained from surface waters and the deep sea all over the world’s ocean. Morphological characterization obtained by high resolution microscopy revealed only small differences between the strains. Sequencing the type material of the type species C. roenbergensis (CCAP 1900/1) and molecular analyses (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA) of newly isolated strains resulted in a revision and separation of the Cafeteriaceae into two known species (C. roenbergensis, C. mylnikovii) and six new species (C. maldiviensis, C. biegae, C. loberiensis, C. chilensis, C. graefeae, C. burkhardae). Many deposited Cafeteria sequences at GenBank and most of our own sequences clustered within one clade (C. burkhardae) with a p-distance of 5% to strain CCAP 1900/1. Only C. maldiviensis clustered together with the type species C. roenbergensis. While C. burkhardae seems to have a cosmopolitan distribution, the distribution of the other species seems to be more restricted. A strain from the Angola Basin had a p-distance of 10% to Cafeteria species and clustered separately within the Anoecales requiring the erection of a new genus, Bilabrum gen. nov., with B. latius sp. nov. as type species.
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