State-of-the-art and novel developments of in vivo haploid technologies
The ability to generate (doubled) haploid plants significantly accelerates the crop breeding process. Haploids have been induced mainly through the generation of plants from cultivated gametophic (haploid) cells and tissues, i.e., in vitro haploid technologies, or through the selective loss of a parental chromosome set upon inter- or intraspecific hybridization. Here, we focus our review on the mechanisms responsible for the in vivo formation of haploids in the context of inter- and intraspecific hybridization. The application of a modified CENH3 for uniparental genome elimination, the IG1 system used for paternal as well as the BBM-like and the patatin-like phospholipase essential for maternal haploidy induction are discussed in detail.