Kinetics of local and systemic immune cell responses in whirling disease infection and resistance in rainbow trout
Background Whirling disease (WD), caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, is responsible for high mortalities in rainbow trout hatcheries and natural populations. To elucidate how resistant and susceptible rainbow trout strains respond to early invasion, a well-established model of WD was used to demonstrate the kinetics of local and systemic immune responses in two rainbow trout strains, the susceptible American Trout Lodge (TL) and the more resistant German Hofer strain (HO). Methods Parasite load and cellular immune responses were compared across several time points after M. cerebralis exposure to elucidate the kinetics of immune cells in resistant and susceptible rainbow trout in response to early invasion. In the course of the 20 days following exposure, leukocyte kinetics was monitored by flow cytometry in the caudal fin (CF), head kidney (HK) and spleen (SP). For the analysis of the leukocyte composition, cells were stained using a set of monoclonal antibodies with known specificity for distinct subpopulations of rainbow trout leukocytes. Results Experiments indicated general increases of CF, HK and SP myeloid cells, while decreases of B cells and T cells in the SP and HK were observed at several time points in the TL strain. On the other hand, in the HO strain, increases of T cells were dominant in CF, HK and SP at multiple time points. The differences between HO and TL were most distinct at 2, 4, 12 and 48 hours post-exposure (hpe) as well as at 4 days post-exposure (dpe), with the vast majority of innate immune response cells having higher values in the susceptible TL strain. Alteration of the leukocyte populations with augmented local cellular responses and excessive immune reactions likely lead to subsequent host tissue damage and supports parasite invasion and development in TL. Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the significance of effective local and systemic immune reaction and indicate proper activation of T lymphocytes critical for host resistance during M. cerebralis infection. The present study provides insights into the cellular basis of protective immune responses against M. cerebralis and can help us to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the variation in resistance to WD.