Effect of quercetin on ovarian cells of pigs and cattle
The bioflavonoid quercetin is a component of food with numerous biological effects, but its function in reproductive processes and mechanisms in various species remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of quercetin on ovarian cells isolated from ovaries of two phytophagous mammalian species (i.e. pigs and cattle). There was analysis of the effect of quercetin (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) on cultured granulosa cells of pigs and cattle. Proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (bax) markers and release of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and IGF-I were quantified using quantitative immunocytochemistry, enzyme immunoassay, or radioimunoassay. Treatments with quercetin reduced PCNA and bax accumulation and decreased P4 release from both granulosa cells of pigs and cattle. In cells of pigs, treatment with quercetin reduced T output, however, in cells of cattle quercetin increased T release. In cells of pigs, quercetin reduced IGF-I release. In cells of cattle, quercetin at smaller doses (1 or 10 ng/mL), promoted and at a large dose (100 ng/mL) reduced IGF-I secretions. There was no substantial E2 release from granulosa cells of pigs or cattle. These observations are the first to indicate there is a direct action of quercetin on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, and hormones release) which can be species-specific.