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Content and composition of essential oil and content of rosmarinic acid in lemon balm and balm genotypes (Melissa officinalis)

GND
1172514569
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural Crops, Quedlinburg, Germany
Kittler, Johannes;
GND
1047227207
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Quedlinburg, Germany
Krüger, Hans;
GND
1058930036
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Quedlinburg, Germany
Ulrich, Detlef;
GND
1172218366
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Quedlinburg, Germany
Zeiger, Bärbel;
GND
1172522340
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Quedlinburg, Germany
Schütze, Wolfgang;
GND
129256323
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Berlin, Germany
Böttcher, Christoph;
GND
1058920979
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Berlin, Germany
Krähmer, Andrea;
GND
1120965160
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Ecological Chemistry, Plant Analysis and Stored Product Protection, Quedlinburg, Germany
Gudi, Gennadi;
GND
1059150409
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural Crops, Quedlinburg, Germany
Kästner, Ute;
Affiliation
Bavarian State Institute for Agriculture (LfL)FreisingGermany
Heuberger, H.;
GND
173016197
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural Crops, Quedlinburg, Germany
Marthe, Frank

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is used since ancient times because of its sedative, spasmolytic and antiviral effects. Its therapeutic impact is due to the content of essential oil and rosmarinic acid. A set of 68 M. officinalis genotypes was evaluated for content and composition of essential oil and the content of rosmarinic acid. For all genotypes the level of ploidy was determined. The 68 genotypes were clone plants grown and evaluated for two years at Quedlinburg. For analysis of secondary metabolites distillation, gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography was used. The content of essential oil varied in this study in ranges from 0.03 to 0.33% for the second cut 2010 and 0.01–0.35% for the second cut 2011. The rosmarinic acid content ranged in the year 2010 from 3.67 to 7.55% and in the year 2011 from 4.92 to 8.07%. Via statistical analyses two chemotypes of essential oil were found: chemotype citral and chemotype β-caryophyllene oxide. Ploidy was determined for all genotypes and two cytotypes were found: diploid 2n = 2x = 32 (62 of 68 genotypes) and triploid 2n = 3x = 48 (6 of 68 genotypes).

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