DNA-marker sets for determination of white oaks (section Quercus) in wood products
For the detection and thereafter the avoiding of illegal logging of valuable tree species, the development of identification methods for the origin of timber is necessary. Here we present the results of marker development for the differentiation of species and origin within the section white oaks (Quercus) based on extensive next generation sequencing. One marker set allows the identification of the continental origin (USA, Europe, Asia) using a multiplex of six chloroplast markers. An extended set of 179 markers analysing regions from the chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is available to differentiate between the species within these continents. The third set presented here, based on five chloroplast markers, is usable for the differentiation of populations within the Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). With these marker sets, we provide the wood trading market with instruments to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.