A newly developed tetraplex real time RT-PCR for simultaneous screening of influenza virus types A, B, C and D.
Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV).Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types.An influenza ABCD tetraplex real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed in the frame of this study. A selection of reference virus strains, and more than 4,000 porcine samples from a passive IAV surveillance programme in European swine with acute respiratory disease were examined.Two IBV, a single IDV but no ICV infections were identified by tetraplex RT-qPCR. IBV and IDV results were confirmed by conventional RT-PCR and partial sequence analysis.The tetraplex RT-qPCR proved fit for purpose as a sensitive, specific and high throughput tool to study influenza virus transmission at the human-animal interface. Complementing close-meshed active virological and serological surveillance is required to better understand the true incidence and prevalence of influenza virus type B, C and D infections in swine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.