Social-ecological systems and forest landscape restoration
This chapter explores how social ecological systems (SES) frameworks provide a fitting conceptual approach to decision-making and can support Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) design, implementation and monitoring. SES can help establish a holistic understanding of both social and ecological interactions at nested scales, in a spatial and temporal context related to FLR practices. This chapter provides a justification for using SES to support FLR planning by outlining what SESs are, the key concepts around SES, with a focus on resilience, and how SES and FLR link, as well as the challenges of using SES for FLR. A range of forest and land management interventions, as methods for FLR, are outlined and analysed through an SES lens to identify how opportunities, trade-offs, and ideas of resilience interact within ecological and social systems.