Biomarker Evaluation and Toxic Effects of an Acute Oral and Systemic Fumonisin Exposure of Pigs with a Special Focus on Dietary Fumonisin Esterase Supplementation
The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed. It causes a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism and pulmonary, hepatic, and immunological lesions in pigs depending on the exposure scenario. One sensitive biomarker for FB1 exposure is the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio in blood. The fumonisin esterase FumD, which can be used as a feed additive, converts FB1 into the much less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1). We conducted a single-dose study with barrows allocated to one of five treatments: (1) control (feed, 0.9% NaCl intravenously iv), (2) 139 nmol FB1 or (3) HFB1/kg BW iv, (4) 3425 nmol FB1/kg BW orally (po), or (5) 3321 nmol FB1/kg BW and 240 U FumD/kg feed po. The Sa/So ratio of iv and po FB1 administered groups was significantly elevated in blood and Liquor cerebrospinalis, but no fumonisin-associated differences were reflected in other endpoints. Neither clinical lung affections nor histopathological pulmonary lesions were detected in either group, while some parameters of hematology and clinical biochemistry showed a treatment–time interaction. FumD application resulted in Sa/So ratios comparable to the control, indicating that the enzymatic treatment was effectively preventing the fumonisin-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism.