Article CC BY 4.0
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Wolbachia in Parasitoids Attacking Native European and Introduced Eastern Cherry Fruit Flies in Europe

Affiliation
Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Hasenauerstrasse 38, 1190 Vienna, Austria; Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Universit€atsplatz 5, 39100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Galvin Life Sciences Building, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Schuler, Hannes;
Affiliation
Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Hasenauerstrasse 38, 1190 Vienna, Austria; Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Kern, Peter;
Affiliation
Molecular Ecology Group, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Arthofer, Wolfgang;
GND
1059102838
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Plant Protection in Fruit Crops and Viticulture, Germany
Vogt, Heidrun;
Affiliation
2nd Zoological Department, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1014 Vienna, Austria
Fischer, Maximilian;
Affiliation
Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Hasenauerstrasse 38, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Stauffer, Christian;
Affiliation
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Riegler, Markus

The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata. Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids. Here we describe for the first time that two braconid wasps, Psyttalia rhagoleticola Sachtleben (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Utetes magnus Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), naturally parasitizing R. cerasi, use the invasive R. cingulata in Europe as a new host. In contrast, no parasitoids that parasitize R. cingulata in its native American range were detected in the introduced European range. Diagnostic Wolbachia PCR screening and sequence analyses demonstrated that all P. rhagoleticola individuals were infected with the newly described Wolbachia strain wRha while all U. magnus individuals were uninfected. wRha is different from wCer1 but had an Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene sequence that was identical to wCer2 of R. cerasi and wCin2 of R. cingulata. However, multi locus sequence typing revealed differences in all loci between wRha and the tephritid’s strains. The horizontal transmission of wCer1 between the two tephritid species did not result in fixed heritable infections in the parasitoids. However, the parasitoids may have acted as a transient wCer1 vector.

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