On the distribution and metabolism of Fusarium-toxins along the gastrointestinal tract of endotoxaemic pigs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential modulatory effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on residues of deoxynivalenol (DON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) after pre- or post-hepatic administration along the gastrointestinal axis. Fifteen barrows were exposed to a naturally mycotoxin contaminated diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed and 0.22 mg ZEN/kg feed) and equipped with jugular (ju) and portal (po) catheters. On sampling day (day 29), the barrows were infused with LPS or a control fluid (LPS, 7.5 µg/kg body weight; control, 0.9% NaCl) either pre- or post-hepatically, resulting in three infusion groups: CONju-CONpo, CONju-LPSpo and LPSju-CONpo. At 195 min relative to infusion start (210 min post-feeding), pigs were sacrificed and content of stomach and small intestine (proximal, medial and distal part) as well as faeces were collected. In all LPS-infused animals, higher amounts of dry matter were recovered irrespective of LPS entry site suggesting a reduced gastric emptying and a decreased gastrointestinal motility under endotoxaemic conditions. DON metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) remained unaltered by treatments and included an increase in the proportion of DOM-1 along the GIT, particularly from distal small intestine to faeces. Variables describing ZEN metabolism suggest a stimulated biliary release of ZEN and its metabolites in LPS-infused groups, particularly in the LPSju-CONpo group. In conclusion, the GIT metabolism of ZEN was markedly influenced in endotoxaemic pigs whereby a jugular induction of an acute phase reaction was more effective than portal LPS infusion hinting at a strong hepatic first-pass effect.
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