Oral and Intravenous Fumonisin Exposure in Pigs : A Single-Dose Treatment Experiment Evaluating Toxicokinetics and Detoxification
We examined the toxicokinetics of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and its main metabolites after single dose application intravenously (iv) of 139 nmol FB1 or hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1)/kg bodyweight (BW) in barrows (BW: 34.4 kg ± 2.7 kg), as well as the toxicokinetics of FB1, FB2, FB3 and FB1 bioavailability from oral exposure (3425 nmol FB1/kg BW, on top of ration). Additionally, detoxification efficacy of FumD (240 U/kg feed; 3321 nmol FB1/kg BW), a fumonisin esterase, was examined for oral fumonisin application. Urine and feces were collected quantitatively and serum samples were taken over a period of 120 h. Serum toxicokinetics of FB1iv showed a short distribution half-life of 6 min followed by a longer elimination half-life of 36 min. After HFB1iv administration, serum clearance was three times higher compared to FB1iv group (5.6 and 1.8 L/kg/h respectively) which together with a 5-times higher volume of distribution indicates that HFB1 is more rapidly cleared from systemic circulation but distributed more extensively into the extravasal space than FB1. The bioavailability of FB1 in orally exposed pigs was 5.2% (incl. metabolites). Moreover, we found a significant reduction of FB1 bioavailability by 90% caused by the action of fumonisin esterase in the gastrointestinal tract, clearly demonstrating the efficacy of FumD.