Use of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Different Applications Around the World
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used worldwide to manage adverse effects of rodents in plant production, public health and conservation. Mainly commensal pest rodent species, Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus, but also field rodents such as Bandicota bangalensis, Mastomys spp., Microtus spp., Rattus argentiventer and R. tanezumi, are targets of AR applications. Pest rodents cause immense monetary losses, health risks, food security issues, and conservation problems to society in many parts of the world. Losses are rarely quantified, but the few examples available suggest that the worldwide cost of pest rodent activity reaches several billion US$ per year. Despite many advantages (delayed action, antidote available) ARs have drawbacks (non-target risk, persistence) that limit general suitability, especially in crop fields. Therefore, and because of separate registration (cost) in the EU for rodenticides in the biocide and plant protection sectors, there is reduced availability of ARs in crop protection. The use of ARs continues to be widespread to limit health risk where risk mitigation (e.g., burrow baiting, removal of dead rodents, indoor application, use of protected bait placements) is possible. In other scenarios where large-scale action against pest rodents in agriculture is needed, suitable management techniques are scarce. Therefore, there is high demand for developing and testing non-chemical management approaches that are effective, large-scale, environmentally friendly, ethical, and economical.