Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer: first investigation of volatile organic compounds of fruit
In 2012, Fragaria cascadensis was described as a decaploid strawberry species from the Oregon Cascade Mountains. The objective of this study was to examine the aroma patterns of fruits of this F. cascadensis in contrast to those of F. vesca ssp. bracteata (A. Heller) Staudt and F. virginiana ssp. platypetala (Rydberg) Staudt. These profiles were investigated by immersion stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-quadrupol mass spectrometry (Imm-SBSE-GC-qMS). The profile of F. cascadensis fruits is clearly separated from that of either F. vesca ssp. bracteata or F. virginiana ssp. platypetala considering 53 detected volatile organic compounds (VOC). Several compounds from different groups were identified: esters, ketones, terpenoids, lactones, furanones, aldehydes, alcohols, acids, and carotenoid derived compounds. Compounds, such as 2-undecanone, phenylmethyl acetate, and 13-damascenone, were found in F. vesca ssp. bracteata, but not in F. virginiana ssp. platypetala or F. cascadensis. In contrast, the compound verbenone was detected only in F. cascadensis, though it did not appear in either the diploid F. vesca ssp. bracteata or in the octoploid F. virginiana ssp. platypetala. Linalool, an important aroma compound, is detectable with low amounts in fruit of F. vesca ssp. bracteata and F. virginiana ssp. platypetala, but with six- to ten-fold times those values in F. cascadensis. A distinctive feature of F. cascadensis is the occurrence of high concentrations of acetophenone.