Detoxification of Fusarium-contaminated maize with sodium sulphite : in vivo efficacy with special emphasis on mycotoxin residues and piglet health
A feeding experiment with piglets was performed to examine the efficacy of a wet preservation of Fusarium (FUS)-contaminated maize with sodium sulphite (SoS) based on deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in urine, bile and liquor and health traits of piglets. For this purpose, 80 castrated male piglets (7.57 ± 0.92 kg BW) were assigned to four treatment groups: CON− (control diet, with 0.09 mg DON and <0.01 mg ZEN/kg diet), CON+ (diet CON−, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; containing 0.05 mg DON and <0.01 mg ZEN/kg diet), FUS− (diet with mycotoxin-contaminated maize; containing 5.36 mg DON and 0.29 mg ZEN/kg diet), and FUS+ (diet FUS−, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; resulting in 0.83 mg DON and 0.27 mg ZEN/kg diet). After 42 d, 40 piglets (n = 10 per group) were sampled. A clear reduction of DON levels by approximately 75% was detected in all specimens of pigs fed diet FUS+. ZEN was detected in all urine, bile and liquor samples, while their metabolites were only detectable in urine and bile. Additionally, their concentrations were not influenced by SoS treatment. Among the health-related traits, feeding of FUS diets increased the total counts of leukocytes and segmented neutrophil granulocytes irrespective of SoS treatment. SoS treatment increased the total blood protein content slightly with a similar numerical trend in albumin concentration. These effects occurred at an obviously lower level in FUS-fed groups. Moreover, SoS treatment recovered the reduction of NO production induced by feeding diet FUS− indicating an effect on the redox level. As this effect only occurred in group FUS+, it is obviously related to the adverse effects of the Fusarium toxins. In conclusion, treatment of FUS-contaminated maize with SoS decreased the inner exposure with DON as indicated by the lower DON levels in various piglet specimens. However, health-related traits did not consistently reflect this decreased exposure.
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