Effects of oral exposure to sodium sulphite-treated deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated maize on performance and plasma concentrations of toxins and metabolites in piglets

Paulick, Marleen GND; Winkler, Janine GND; Kersten, Susanne GND; Schatzmayr, D.; Frahm, Jana GND; Klüß, Jeannette GND; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H. E.; Dänicke, Sven GND

The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the efficiency of the decontamination process applied to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated maize by sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) treatment in vivo. Additionally, in vitro characterisation of the toxicity of the DON sulphonates (DONS 1, 2 and 3 denote structurally different forms), the resulting DON metabolites, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) should substantiate the inactivation of DON. In a piglet experiment, both DON-contaminated maize and -uncontaminated control maize either untreated (DON−, CON−) or Na2SO3-treated (DON+, CON+) were mixed into feed and fed for 42 d starting from weaning. The results showed that feed intake and daily weight gain of animals fed DON− were significantly lower compared to animals fed CON− and CON+, whereas group DON+ reached the control level or even exceeded it. The feed-to-gain ratio was unaffected (p = 0.45). Furthermore, DON concentrations in plasma markedly reflected the diets’ DON concentrations. These were < 0.1, < 0.1, 5.4 and 0.8 mg/kg feed for CON−, CON+, DON− and DON+, and amounted to 0.3, 0.4, 33.0 and 9.3 ng/ml in plasma, respectively. Whereas DONS 2 and 3 were detected in the DON+ diet, only DONS 2 was recovered in plasma. Regarding the toxicity of DONS, no or much lower toxicity was found compared to DON. DONS 1 and Na2SO3 did not affect the viability of PBMC. At 32.71μM DONS2 the viability was reduced by 50% and thus this compound was less toxic than DON by a factor of 73. Consequently, wet preservation of maize with Na2SO3 was an effective tool to avoid the adverse effects of DON on performance of piglets.

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Paulick, Marleen / Winkler, Janine / Kersten, Susanne / et al: Effects of oral exposure to sodium sulphite-treated deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated maize on performance and plasma concentrations of toxins and metabolites in piglets. 2017.

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