Inter- and transdisciplinarity in bioeconomy
In this chapter, characteristics and definitions of inter- and transdisciplinary research are presented and discussed with specific attention to bioeconomy- related policy discourses, concepts and production examples. Inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches have the potential to positively contribute to solving complex societal problems and to advance the generation of knowledge relevant for innovative solutions. As a key concept for integrating different disciplines across social and natural sciences within a common research project, we present principles, models and examples of system research and highlight systems practice with the help of the farming systems and the socioecological systems approaches. Next, we concretise inter- and transdisciplinary research practice as a three-phase process and operationalise cooperation of scientists and stakeholders in bioeconomy contexts. Specific attention is given to a differentiated understanding of knowledge. The chapter is closed with a reflection on the role researchers play in inter- and transdisciplinary research and the impacts created by norms and values emanating from science.