Grapevine trunk disease in German viticulture II. : Associated fungi occurring on non-Vitis hosts, and first report of Phaeoacremonium angustius
Fifteen species of wood colonizing fungi are presented that have been collected from various non-Vitis hosts in the vicinity of vineyards located in southern Palatinate, Germany. Information is provided on their geographic distribution, epidemiology, host range, life strategy, symptoms and diagnosis. Their role as possible pathogens within the complex of grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) is discussed. The following species are reported for the first time in Germany: Botryosphaeria sarmentorum, Cadophora malorum, Cadophora novi-eboraci, Collophora africana, Collophora hispanica, Cytospora chrysosperma, Diaporthe foeniculina, Dothiorella iberica, and Phaeoacremonium angustius. Diplodia seriata, Diplodia mutila, Dothiorella iberica, Cytospora chrysosperma, and Dothiorella iberica were proven by airborne inoculum, and could be demonstrated throughout the duration of our study, i.e. from March through September. The study points to a possible significance of non-Vitis hosts as additional inoculum source in GTDs. Also, the existence of airborne spores early in the year might be relevant with regard to the pruning period of vines.