An update of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae serotyping
Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD) has been divided into 9 serotypes on basis of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Knowledge on circulating serotypes in Europe, however, is rare. Regarding that immunity to SD is serotype specific an update of B. hyodysenteriae serotyping was undertaken. A LOS band of 10 to 25 kDa was identified being appropriate for this purpose. Isolates from Germany, Spain, Denmark, USA and Japan were characterized in the immunoblot by sera raised to serotypes 1 through 7, serogroups H and I (reference strains) and to eight German strains. In total, 57 (51%) isolates responded to at least one of the antisera. Regarding German isolates (n = 75) only 35 (46.7%) were identified but mainly by antisera to German strains. Positive Spanish isolates (12 0f 17) yielded similar results. In contrast, positively reacting Danish isolates (9 of 12) were mainly identified by antisera to the reference strains as it was the case for recent U.S. (1 of 8) and Japanese isolates (3 of 5). Results indicate that B. hyodysenteriae has a high degree of serological heterogeneity that has probably differently developed in diverse geographical areas over time. This situation represents a challenge for vaccine development.