Euphausiid respiration model revamped: Latitudinal and seasonal shaping effects on krill respiration rates
Euphausiids constitute a major biomass component in shelf ecosystems and play a fundamental role in the rapid vertical transport of carbon from the ocean surface to the deeper layers during their daily vertical migration (DVM). DVM depth and migration patterns depend on oceanographic conditions with respect to temperature, light and oxygen availability at depth, factors that are highly dependent on season in most marine regions. Here we introduce a global krill respiration ANN (artiﬁcial neural network) model including the effect of latitude (LAT), the day of the year (DoY), and the number of daylight hours (DLh), in addition to the basal variables that determine ectothermal oxygen consumption (temperature, bodymass and depth). The newly implemented parameters link space and time in terms of season and photoperiod to krill respiration. The ANN model showed a better ﬁt (r2 = 0.780) when DLh and LAT were included, indicating a decrease in respiration with increasing LAT and decreasing DLh. We therefore propose DLh as a potential variable to consider when building physiological models for both hemispheres. For single Euphausiid species investigated in a large range of DLh and DoY, we also tested the standard respiration rate for seasonality with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and General Additive model (GAM). GAM successfully integrated DLh (r2 = 0.563) and DoY (r2 = 0.572) effects on respiration rates of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, yielding the minimum metabolic activity in mid-June and the maximum at the end of December. We could not detect DLh or DoY effects in the North Paciﬁc krill Euphausia paciﬁca, and our ﬁndings for the North Atlantic krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica remained inconclusive because of insufficient seasonal data coverage. We strongly encourage comparative respiration measurements of worldwide Euphausiid key species at different seasons to improve accuracy in ecosystem modeling.
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