Epidemiological, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt
Background Salmonella is one of major causes of foodborne outbreaks globally. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, typing and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from 41 broiler chicken farms located in Kafr El-Sheikh Province in Northern Egypt during 2014–2015. The clinical signs and mortalities were observed. Results In total 615 clinical samples were collected from broiler flocks from different organs (liver, intestinal content and gall bladder). Salmonella infection was identified in 17 (41%) broiler chicken flocks and 67 Salmonella isolates were collected. Recovered isolates were serotyped as 58 (86.6%) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, 6 (9%) S. enterica serovar Enteritidis and 3 (4.5%) were non-typable. The significant high mortality rate was observed only in 1-week-old chicks. sopE gene was detected in 92.5% of the isolates which indicating their ability to infect humans. All S. enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. The phenotypically resistant S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates against ampicillin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were harbouring BlaTEM, (tetA and tetC), (sul1 and sul3) and (cat1 and floR), respectively. The sensitivity rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium to gentamycin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin were 100, 94.8, 89.7%, respectively. The silent streptomycin antimicrobial cassettes were detected in all Salmonella serovars. A class one integron (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2) was identified in three of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study considered first report discussing the prevalence, genotyping, antibiotic susceptibility and public health significance of S. enterica serovars in broilers farms of different ages in Delta Egypt. Further studies are mandatory to verify the location of some resistance genes that are within or associated with the class one integron.