Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development
The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs in the uterus of the maternal adult during the early stages of gestation. Biomedical pig models could serve as genetic backgrounds for establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or other pluripotent stem cells (such as iPSC), which may be used to model and study diseases in vitro. This chapter provides insight into the current knowledge of pluripotent states in the developing pig embryo and the current status in establishment of bona fide porcine ESC (pESC) and piPSCs. It reflects the potential causes underlying the difficulty in establishing pluripotent stem cells and reviews recent data on global profiling of the pluripotent states in this species.