Antibody-induced and cytoskeleton-mediated redistribution and shedding of viral glycoproteins, expressed on pseudorabies virus-infected cells
Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled porcine pseudorabies virus (PrV) polyclonal antibodies were added to PrV-infected swine kidney cells in vitro at 37 degrees C. In approximately 47% of the infected cells, the addition induced passive patching and subsequent energy- and microtubule-dependent capping of all viral envelope glycoproteins, expressed on the plasma membranes of the infected cells. Further contraction and extrusion of the capped viral glycoproteins occurred in approximately 30% of the capped cells 2 h after the addition of antibodies and was accompanied by a concentration of F-actin beneath the caps. At that time, about 18% of the extruded caps were shed spontaneously into the surrounding medium. Mechanical force released 85% of the extruded caps, leaving viable cells with no microscopically detectable levels of viral glycoproteins on their plasma membranes. Experiments with PrV deletion mutants showed that viral glycoproteins gE and gI are important in triggering viral glycoprotein redistribution. Since the PrV gE-gI complex exhibits Fc receptor activity which facilitates capping, the importance of gE and gI may be partially explained by antibody bipolar bridging.
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