Chapter 1 : Introducing Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba Dana, 1850
The first description of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) dates back to 1850. After a period of taxonomic work and the description of several synonyms, detailed studies on the morphology, internal anatomy and general biology of this species commenced with the ‘Discovery’ investigations beginning in the 1920s. During the BIOMASS project (Biological Investigations Of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks) in the 1980s, studies expanded on the biology and ecology of Antarctic krill, including all aspects of zoogeography and zooplankton community structure. The developing krill fishery and the establishment of CCAMLR (Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) resulted in the pressing need for more quantitative data, which required the use of standardized methods of surveying, sampling, and measuring krill. Despite krill becoming one of the most well-known marine species, many questions remain unanswered and require – in addition to well-established methods – different or even new approaches in future krill research.